Chordee is a curvature of the phallus: instead of the penis being straight when erect, it curves. The curvature can be from mild to severe, sometimes being acceptable to the individual, sometimes precluding intercourse or making erection or sex painful. This can happen as a result of scarring inside the penis from injury or infection or scarring as a result of previous genital surgery, or from cells that bunch up in one section of the penis as a result of a disorder of sex development. Chordee can occur along with hypospadias or epispadias, and it can be repaired surgically.
Bladder and kidney stones happen as a result of proteins, calcium, and/or urea concentrating in higher levels than normal in the blood and creating stones when filtered through the kidney, sometimes making it into the bladder. These can be very painful as they “pass” though the kidney into the ureters and lodge in the bladder or get passed out of the body through the urethra on urination. Larger stones can lodge in the kidney and require a doctor’s attention to be removed.
A fistula (plural: fistulas or fistulae) is an abnormal passage or opening between body organs or between the body and the outside. In terms of hypospadias or epispadias, it is an opening through which urine flows out at a location other than the urinary meatus (the hole where the urethra opens). Fistulas can appear anywhere along the shaft of the penis, on the lower abdominal wall, or even on the perineum behind the testicles. Fistulas can occur soon after surgery when a wound isn’t completely healed, and these can sometimes heal on their own. Alternatively, they can sometimes occur long after surgery. Persistent fistula usually results from a previous surgical wound breaking down under the force of urine wearing away at the tissue until a channel works its way to the outside of the skin and creates a leak. Besides making urination messy, these leaks also increase the possibility of infection. Some fistulas can remain for years without major complications but may eventually require surgical repair. If the leak is inside the penis and breaks into the spongy bodies involved in erection, that kind of leak is called “extravasation” and is very painful, requiring immediate medical attention.
A stricture happens when a channel in the body narrows, usually as a result of injury, infection, or previous surgery. When a stricture occurs in the urethra, urination is less comfortable and can be difficult, and the chance of infection increases. Urethral strictures can sometimes be treated just with a dilation, which is a stretching done in a doctor’s office with the urethra under local anesthesia or in an operating room with the patient under general anesthesia. Occasionally, however, urethral strictures may require surgery.